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Tuesday, June 17

  1. msg CO2 toxicity / narcotic effect message posted CO2 toxicity / narcotic effect Thanks for your thoughts on this! You are correct that CO2 generally has a stronger anesthetic e…
    CO2 toxicity / narcotic effect
    Thanks for your thoughts on this!

    You are correct that CO2 generally has a stronger anesthetic effect than would be expected from its lipid solubility. However, it has been shown that mammalian homeostasis is capable of compensating for this if given days or weeks to acclimate. Upon acclimation, the anesthetic effect of CO2 becomes comparable to that of xenon, as would be expected from lipid solubility.

    Glad to know that other people are interested in running these sorts of numbers.
    8:26 pm

Monday, June 16

  1. msg CO2 toxicity / narcotic effect message posted CO2 toxicity / narcotic effect There is a problem with the CO2 narcotic potency values you are using. While for most substances th…
    CO2 toxicity / narcotic effect
    There is a problem with the CO2 narcotic potency values you are using. While for most substances their narcotic potency appears to be directly proportional to their lipid solubility, this does not seem to be the case for O2 and CO2. According to lipid solubility values, CO2 should have slightly lower narcotic potency then xenon, however, experiments on rats show that it's actual anesthetic is several times higher than that.

    I could not find any conclusive figures of what narcotic effect CO2 actually has on human beings, but I did some modeling: it seems to be generally accepted in diving community that narcotic effect of standard air becomes noticeable around 60fsw and may cause serious health hazard below 130fsw. Considering that those numbers approximately correspond to 2% and 5% CO2 concentration under normal atmospheric pressure and respective narcotic potencies of N2 and Argon is well known, my simulations show that CO2 must have narcotic effect of about 80 times of N2.

    The only flow in those simulations is that narcotic effect of O2 is not well understood. While most experts seem to agree that it has some narcotic effect, many believe that it is lower then t lipid solubility would suggest since it is partly metabolized by the cells. No conclusive experiments have been done since direct O2 toxicity becomes a major issue at ppO2 values considerably below those where its narcotic effect would become noticeable. However, I have read accounts of some divers experimenting with different breathing gases and there seems to be a general agreement that O2 is less narcotic then N2, but more narcotic then Helium, and probably more narcotic then H2. This would put it anywhere between 0.5 and 0.9 times of N2, so I'm using mean value of 0.7 in my simulations.

    Minimal acceptable level pf ppO2 for an average woman during pregnancy appears to be around 160 mbar - you would need to maintain it at this level to have a self-sustaining colony, unless you populate it exclusively with Tibetans and Andeans. This would correspond to molar fraction of 50% at 320 mbar total atmospheric pressure.

    According to my simulation, maximum acceptable molar fraction of CO2 under those conditions would be around 9.5%, assuming the remaining 40.5% is N2 (you could replace up to 10% of it with argon without noticeable increase in narcotic effect). Adding too much argon or significant amounts of other highly narcotic gases (e.g. krypton and xenon), on the other hand, could significantly reduce acceptable CO2 levels.
    3:55 am

Wednesday, December 5

  1. page Mars Missions edited ... Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (2006-) http://marsprogram.jpl.nasa.gov/mro/ Mars Science Labor…
    ...
    Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (2006-)
    http://marsprogram.jpl.nasa.gov/mro/
    Mars Science Laboratory,Laboratory (MSL) Rover, Curiosity (2011-)
    http://marsprogram.jpl.nasa.gov/msl/
    Future
    MAVEN Orbiter (2013)
    http://lasp.colorado.edu/maven/
    InSight MissionLander (2016)
    http://insight.jpl.nasa.gov/
    ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter and EDM (2016)
    ...
    ExoMars Rover (2018)
    http://sci.esa.int/science-e/www/object/index.cfm?fobjectid=48088
    NASA Mars Rover (2020)
    http://www.nasa.gov/home/hqnews/2012/dec/HQ_12-420_Mars_2020.html

    Mars Sample Return (2020s?)
    (view changes)
    10:01 am
  2. 8:59 am

Monday, August 20

  1. page Mars Missions edited ... http://marsprogram.jpl.nasa.gov/msl/ Future ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter (2016) http://sci.es…
    ...
    http://marsprogram.jpl.nasa.gov/msl/
    Future
    ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter (2016)
    http://sci.esa.int/science-e/www/object/index.cfm?fobjectid=46475

    MAVEN (2013)
    http://lasp.colorado.edu/maven/
    InSight Mission (2016)
    http://insight.jpl.nasa.gov/
    ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter and EDM (2016)
    http://sci.esa.int/science-e/www/object/index.cfm?fobjectid=46124

    ExoMars Rover (2018)
    Marshttp://sci.esa.int/science-e/www/object/index.cfm?fobjectid=48088
    Mars
    Sample Return, 2020sReturn (2020s?)
    (view changes)
    2:26 pm

Wednesday, August 15

  1. page Hypoxia edited ... PH2O = water vapor pressure in the body; for a normal body temperature of 37°C this is 63 mbar…
    ...
    PH2O = water vapor pressure in the body; for a normal body temperature of 37°C this is 63 mbar (47 mm Hg)
    For normal atmospheric conditions, this equation produces PIO2 = 200 mbar (150 mm Hg). Any air mixture and pressure which produces a PIO2 below this may be considered a hypoxic atmosphere.
    ...
    encountered there. This limit occurs atAt this altitude Patm= 356 mbar (267 mm Hg) and FO2= 21%, indicatingmbar, so we can calculate that PIO2 = 62 mbar (46 mm Hg).is required for sustained human respiration.
    For pure
    ...
    263 mbar (197 mm Hg) results in
    ...
    124 mbar (93 mm Hg) produces PIO2
    ...
    the limit for long-term support ofrequired to sustain human life.
    (view changes)
    3:17 pm
  2. page Home edited Welcome to the NewMars Wiki! The NewMars Congratulations to the Curiosity rover team on a succ…

    Welcome to the NewMars Wiki!
    The NewMarsCongratulations to the Curiosity rover team on a successful landing!
    mars.jpl.nasa.gov/msl/
    You can visit our
    forums are finally back in action! Check us out at www.newmars.com!!www.newmars.com.
    Be sure to check out our list of useful links. There are some great resources there.
    If you would like to flesh out an idea for an article, please go to the General Discussion page, and hopefully someone will respond to your post in short time!
    You are invited to chat on the NewMars IRC channel.
    (view changes)
    2:57 pm
  3. page Mars Missions edited ... Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (2006-) http://marsprogram.jpl.nasa.gov/mro/ Phobos-Grunt (2011…
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    Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (2006-)
    http://marsprogram.jpl.nasa.gov/mro/
    Phobos-Grunt (2011-?)
    http://phobos.cosmos.ru/index.php?id=285&L=2
    Future
    Mars
    Mars Science Laboratory, Curiosity (2011)(2011-)
    http://marsprogram.jpl.nasa.gov/msl/
    Future
    ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter (2016)
    http://sci.esa.int/science-e/www/object/index.cfm?fobjectid=46475
    (view changes)
    2:52 pm

Sunday, November 20

  1. page Home edited Welcome to the NewMars Wiki! NewMars is currently trying to recover from the loss of its The N…

    Welcome to the NewMars Wiki!
    NewMars is currently trying to recover from the loss of itsThe NewMars forums and wiki due to a server failure in early 2011. As a result, the information accumulated in those resources over the years is currently unavailable to the remaining community. This new wiki is meant to act as a place where individuals may recontribute material so that members of the NewMars community can continue to share and benefit from each others knowledge. New contributions and ideas are of course always welcome so long as they are placedfinally back in the correct place, which will probably be their own article.
    If you know or can contact anyone from the Newmars forums (or from elsewhere!) who you think would be interested, feel free.
    Special Note! Keep updated on the status of Phobos-Grunt here:
    http://www.russianspaceweb.com/
    http://twitter.com/#!/PhobosGrunt
    http://www.n2yo.com/?s=37872 (satellite track)
    We are very close to having www.newmars.com back! The forums are currently being reconstructed.
    action! Check us out at www.newmars.com!!
    Be sure to check out our list of useful links. There are some great resources there.
    If you would like to flesh out an idea for an article, please go to the General Discussion page, and hopefully someone will respond to your post in short time!
    (view changes)
    8:53 pm

Thursday, November 10

  1. page Home edited ... http://www.russianspaceweb.com/ http://twitter.com/#!/PhobosGrunt http://www.n2yo.com/?s=37…
    ...
    http://www.russianspaceweb.com/
    http://twitter.com/#!/PhobosGrunt
    http://www.n2yo.com/?s=37872 (satellite track)
    We are very close to having www.newmars.com back! The forums are currently being reconstructed.
    Be sure to check out our list of useful links. There are some great resources there.
    (view changes)
    10:02 am

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